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An abbreviation formed from coder-decoder, implying a 'double-ended' processing system where a signal is encoded into a specific format before transmission or recording, and then decoded on reception or replay. An example of an analogue codec might be the Dolby A or Dolby B tape noise-reduction systems, while a digital codec might be something like the FLAC data-reduction system where redundant data is removed in the coding process and fully restored in the decoding process.